What is organic farming

What is organic farming

What is organic farming

27 / 09 / 2020
High requirements for environmental friendliness of products have led to the fact that a new direction is actively developing in agriculture - organic farming.

Characteristics of organic farming

High requirements for environmental friendliness of products have led to the fact that a new direction is actively developing in agriculture - organic farming. According to this technique, when growing plants, the use of pesticides and minerals, the use of genetically modified seeds is excluded, biological products and organics are used. Also for organic farming, a characteristic feature is surface tillage. More details about the popular technique are below.

History of organic farming

Cultivation of soil for the purpose of growing food has been developing for over 8 thousand years. At the dawn of the formation of agriculture, minimal interventions were used, however, with the development of mankind and technical progress, people learned to work the fields more efficiently and get high yields.

Everything would be fine, but no trace of the dogmas of organic soil cultivation remained. Intensive cultivation technologies and the pursuit of high yields have come to the fore, the effectiveness of which is due to the use of a large amount of pesticides, chemicals and artificially created seeds (GMOs).

After lengthy research that proved the harm of such techniques both for humans and for the environment in general, interest in organic farming has rekindled. It is growing stronger every year, the demand for environmentally friendly products is growing, which requires farmers to revise their growing principles and abandon the use of chemicals.

Features of the nutrition of crops

For the full development of plants, various substances and elements are needed. Their “diet” is based on carbon (up to 50%), which they obtain from carbon dioxide and from microorganisms contained in the soil. Due to the processing of organic components in the earth, humus is synthesized.

In general, the "diet" necessary for plant development consists of the following substances:

  • carbon;
  • oxygen;
  • hydrogen;
  • nitrogen;
  • mineral compounds.

Important: the mineral diet is capable of providing only up to 22% of the nutritional needs of crops, therefore, for full development, it is necessary to replenish the organic reserves in the soil.

Humus: the main condition for fertility

This substance consists of various organic elements, fungi and microbes necessary for the development of plants. Useful properties in humus are:

  • activation of the synthesis of components;
  • loosening the soil;
  • improving aeration of surface soil layers;
  • accumulation and retention of moisture.

It also promotes the dissolution of acids, which leads to the formation of a special solution that is useful for plant development.

Interestingly: in nature, humus in the soil is formed and accumulates by itself - as a result of decomposition of plant residues, leaves, the life of microorganisms. In most cases, the positive process is due to the lack of human intervention. However, in agriculture, the natural formation of humus is disturbed, therefore, periodic introduction of organic matter is required to replenish its reserves in the soil.

Sustainable farming: benefits

When growing agricultural products in an organic way, special preparations and fertilizers are used, created on the basis of natural substances. Thanks to this, the environment is not polluted with chemicals, it is possible to preserve fertile soils with living microorganisms. In addition, due to surface treatment, the structure of the soil is not disturbed, which also has a positive effect on the ecosystem.

Additional benefits of organic farming include:

  • safety of agricultural products. Grown without pesticides, they do not accumulate chemicals that pose a threat to human and animal health;
  • reducing the risks of environmental pollution. When treating the soil with chemicals, harmful compounds accumulate in the ground, penetrate into groundwater and with them enter water bodies, leading to the death of living beings.

As you can see, the benefits of organic farming are really significant. First of all, this technique is aimed at eliminating the danger to the person himself and providing him with environmentally friendly food. In addition, organic farming involves minimal interference with the environment. This agrotechnology does not harm it and allows maintaining the natural ecosystem.

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