If we talk about the countries of the American continent, then here the leading crop for export is corn. As for Europe, in particular Ukraine, here it is only gaining popularity among farmers and at the moment brings from 400 to 800% of profits. In view of the increased profitability, many are interested in what needs to be taken into account when growing this crop and how much will have to be invested in the business.
One of the most important factors to look out for is the site. If you choose black soil, sandy loam and loam, you can get an excellent harvest - that is why the steppe part of the country is most often preferred. In addition, there are several additional requirements for the site. It:
Give preference to open areas where the sunniest and previously grown winter crops, legumes or row crops. It is also important to understand that corn depletes the soil, so you should avoid growing it in the same area for more than one year in a row.
Cultivation for corn is carried out in spring, when the soil dries up enough and its temperature reaches 8-12 degrees. Immediately before sowing, it is necessary to do fine loosening - this helps to destroy the capillaries and retain moisture in the ground. As a rule, the start of work is determined by the farmer taking into account climatic conditions, as well as the condition of the soil.
At the same time, it is extremely important for everyone to preserve the structure of the soil - that is why only light combined equipment is used in the work, and the processing is carried out exclusively to the depth of seeding. Harrows and earth rollers are used. Harrowing is used to level the topsoil and create a fine crumbly structure.
When plowing, the following mistakes are made:
If, after the initial treatment, there are furrows left on the soil, then they can be removed using disc cultivators. As for planting seeds, it is carried out no later than a day after the site is plowed.
It has already been mentioned that corn wears out the land on which it grows and requires additional feeding. It is very important to fertilize the site with compost or manure since autumn - if this has not been done, then the procedure can be carried out 7-10 days before sowing. Also in the spring, nitrogen and potash fertilizers are added to the soil. It is forbidden to use manure during this period, as it heats up and leads to the death of seeds.
For high yields, you need to prepare the grain in advance and sow at temperatures not lower than +10 degrees. The best harvest is produced by a crop that is in contact with the sun's rays for at least 12 hours a day and grows at a temperature of 24-28 degrees.
Initially, it is necessary to classify the types of corn in order to understand which ones are better to pay attention to. It is worth taking food varieties into account, since growing forage is not so profitable.
Foods are divided into hybrid and conventional. As for the origin of the seeds, that is, European and Ukrainian. It is better to focus on the former. Experienced farmers give up to 10 tons per hectare, but from domestic farmers it is no more than 6-8 tons. It is worth considering that hybrids of Ukrainian origin are also characterized by low stability and in the second generation no longer give a large, healthy harvest.
The selection is made taking into account the soil and climate characteristics. Most of all, they pay attention to the ripening period - if the site is in a cold region, then early ripening varieties are chosen, since there are fewer sunny days. It is assessed in special FAO points using a scale from 100 to 900 units. In it, 10 points are equal to about 2 days of ripening. If we talk about the steppe zone, then the optimal indicator here would be 250-500 FAO.
Popular among domestic products "Spirit", "Pioneer", "Sundance"... But among the European ones it is worth focusing on varieties"Rustic", "Monsanto"...
If you follow the previous points, you can get a good harvest, but there are a couple of options for how to further increase efficiency:
In addition, it is recommended to harvest the cobs a few days before ripening if they are sold as canned products.
The first step to starting a corn business is legal registration. In Ukraine, this kind of case can be conducted by:
Once you resolve this issue, it is worth worrying about the material and technical base. This includes:
For small businesses, the priority is to rent equipment for the processing period. This makes it possible to avoid a serious drop in profit at the start and removes the need to worry about boxes for storing and searching for drivers.
It is important to understand that the main collection takes place manually - this way there is less chance of damaging the ears. That is why, by the time of cleaning, you need to find workers and transport for transportation to the warehouse or the buyer.
There are several ways to implement harvested corn. An entrepreneur can do this on his own or sell products to wholesale buyers. In this case, the producers of corn flour and canneries will offer about 4-5 hryvnia per ear - you get rid of unnecessary worries about further processing and transportation.
If there is a desire to significantly increase income, then you can do the following:
In this case, you will need additional workers, equipment, storage space, equipment. The latter method will be the most difficult, since you have to open another enterprise - at the same time, the payback is pleasantly surprising, since in some regions ready-made boiled corn is sold at a price two or three times more expensive.
Under the best circumstances, if you have chosen the right variety and place for sowing, you can collect up to 50 thousand ears, which will be approximately 200-250 thousand income per hectare. Taking into account processing, equipment, workers' salaries and the purchase of seeds, the entrepreneur receives a net profit in the amount of 100 thousand to 150 thousand.
In the case of an increase in the area of crops, profitability increases - in fact, the costs become lower, especially if it becomes possible to purchase equipment once, and not rent it all the time.
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