High-quality mechanical tillage is considered to be one of the most effective measures that increase its fertility, increase yields, destroy weeds (at least 98-99%), pests, pathogens. Modern cultivators with a well-thought-out design, high efficiency will create good conditions for growing useful crops. The choice of the optimal type of equipment, compliance with the recommendations for its use on different soils will allow to perform high-quality pre-sowing tillage, harrowing, ensuring the effectiveness of agronomic measures.
Purpose and efficiency of cultivators
The correct system of tillage will guarantee the improvement of its characteristics, agrophysical properties, quality of plant products. For its successful implementation use special agricultural machinery - cultivators. They help to cultivate the land well to create optimal conditions for crop growth.
The device provides:
deepening of fertilizers, pesticides, ameliorants.
The cultivator performs working operations without turning the formation. Machining is provided by such elements as knives, disks, leveling bars, rotary rollers, etc. The surface should not be large stones (more than 15 cm), solid debris, it is desirable to treat the area with a flat terrain and a slope of not more than 8 degrees. After continuous cultivation, the upper layer of soil should be smooth, without furrows, ridges. The presence of small lumps is allowed.
Important to remember! When cultivating the soil with a cultivator, its wet layers should not be carried by the working elements of the equipment to the surface. According to the norms, deviations from the planned depth of no more than 1 cm are allowed.
Types of cultivators
Cultivators are classified depending on the features of work, the specifics of use. The efficiency of machines, the quality of agronomic requirements for tillage depend on the design of the chassis, the presence of wear of joints, power.
By purpose, they are divided into several groups:
They are used for continuous tillage, loosening, preparation for sowing with simultaneous harrowing, pruning of harmful crops, as well as in the care of steam. The quality of cultivators of this type is assessed by the endurance of the depth of processing, the degree of pruning of harmful flora, clogging of working elements. This indicator is monitored 2-3 times per shift.
Cultivators - plant fertilizers of this format are necessary for pre-sowing, inter-row cultivation of row crops (sugar beets, sunflowers, potatoes, corn, vegetable crops). They help to perform important tasks:
loosen the soil, row spacing;
destroy harmful plants (pruning, combing, sprinkling with earth);
turn up useful crops in rows;
reduce moisture loss and increase soil air content.
The amount of loosening of the soil depends on the biological characteristics of the plants, the parameters of the rows, the individual situation on the site (type of sowing, rainfall, number of weeds).
Cultivators of this format are designed for narrow tasks - garden, forest, milling, anti-erosion, etc.
Depending on the design features of the machine are classified into trailed and trailed, they are effectively used in all soil-climatic zones.
Remember! The period between pre-sowing cultivation and sowing should be minimal. It is better if both events are held on the same day, especially in arid conditions.
Before starting work, be sure to check the technical condition of the cultivator. At first it is inspected, fastenings are estimated. Working elements are selected depending on the specifics of the task (they are attached to a given depth of tillage). At the finishing stage, harrows are installed on the machine. Modern cultivators are equipped with a strong, rigid construction of a frame, steady against wear, damages by working bodies. Some models are equipped with automatic or manual control systems.
When choosing the optimal model, it is important to take into account not only the technical characteristics, but also recommendations on the specific resistance of the soil, its humidity, the shape of the cultivator paw, the amount of crop residues on the field surface, immersion depth, working speed. Good parameters allow the use of machinery on all types of soils (including stony, heavy).
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